Western civilization, philosophy, theology, econonomics, political science, other
Western civilization and the European Phenomenon
Western civilization – colonization of the world 1492 – 1914. Changes in the size of areas dependent on the West (2021)
[in English] The article presents calculations of territorial changes of individual colonial empires broken down into centuries and continents in the period 1492-1914. This is probably one of the first attempts to calculate these changes in detail over such a long period of time. My article and model in MS Excel answers a number of questions and is an invitation to further work.
2021, file size 1750 kB, text 15 pages, sources 6 pages, tables 37 pages © Jacek Kwaśniewski 2021
- pdf version Part I, text [in English]
- pdf version Part II, tables [in English] /Sept 15, 2021 small corrections made in pp 5-8/
- Excel spreadsheet [in English] available on request
A note on historical stimulators and inhibitors of economic growth. Europe, China, Asia (2021)
[in Polish] Text from my archive. I present three important theories explaining historical economic growth, of E.L. Jones, A. Maddison and D. North. I present also a brief information about three formalized theories of growth and two concepts explaining the slowdown of China in the period of the sixteenth to nineteenth centuries: the theory of population brake and the wrong surplus distribution. I recall here the ideas of C. Bekar, M. Elvin, Z. Griliches, G.D. Hansen, Ch.R. Hulten, R. Lipsey, M. Kremer, J. Mokyr, E.C. Prescott, R. Solow.
2021 (previously 2009, 2018), file size 745 kB, 14 pages
Why the Church, why Christianity? These variables’ justification (2021)
[in Polish] Rationale behind the choice of the Church and Christianity as the main variables explicating the emergence of the European Phenomenon
2021, file size 600 kB, 4 pages
The Imperial Rome merchant fleet: size estimation
2021, file size 640 kB, 10 pages
[in Polish] Newly written point in my book “Medieval Merchant Ships”. I have read an excellent work by the Norwegian historian Johann Rasmus Brandt on an estimate of the size of the Roman merchant fleet of the Imperial era. Brandt summed up the work to date on this issue and presented a methodologically very clear estimate. I decided to delete the previous text on this issue in my book and use Brandt’s work. Besides I attach a spreadsheet if anybody wants to make self-counting of the size of the Roman merchant fleet using variables presented by Brandt
Non-empirical foundations of empirical sciences (2012)
2012, file size 360 kB, 41 pages
- pdf version (enter the password, clue: C46s32)
April 2020 working version, available on password
[in Polish] Working version, not available yet. Twentieth-century philosophy of science, despite all discrepancies, is characterized by the common thought that there are statements that do not have empirical status, that is, do not succumb to the falsification procedure, that play some role in the creation of scientific theories. Such statements are commonly called metaphysical judgments in the philosophy of science. These non-empirical, metaphysical statements are considered to be external to scientific theory (for example, Carnap, Popper), internal, i.e. are immanent part of a theory (for example, Lakatos) or accepted by agreement of scholarly communities (for example, Kuhn, Kitcher, and Longino). This surprising consensus of so often extremely different theories of science strongly legitimizes Christianity as a possible co-creative element of modern science
The European Phenomenon and Christianity. Concept of the book and its advancement of May 2021
2021, file size 820 kB, 17 pages
[in English] The pdf version of the Christianitas subpage, updated in May, 2021. After few years, my research project titled European Phenomenon and Christianity is advanced enough that the majority of its parts, either ready or in well advanced working versions, could be presented together.
Role of Church and Christianity in technological changes in medieval Europe (2020)
2020, file size 2,4 MB, 95 pages. Shorter version was presented at IXth Philosophical Congress in Lublin (Poland) in September 2019 in Section Philosophy of Technology (Thursday)
[in Polish] The synthetic picture of the influence of the Church and doctrine, estimation of the Church and secular sphere participation in the medieval technological progress, an attempt to reconstruct Of Church’s policy of building a pro-innovative climate and many other issues; file size 2,4 MB, 95 pages.
The Middle Ages were an technologically creative era, and Christianity and the Church played an important role in the technological awakening of medieval Europe. The contribution of the Church was: 1 / its own participation in the creation of innovations, 2 / creation of technological demand, 3 / creation of human capital and the system of knowledge circulation, 4 / creation of market economy institutions supportive to innovations, 5 / ideological integration of Europe, fastening the circulation od technological ideas, 6 / creation of a pro-innovative climate. The latter element made Europe unique. The high innovativeness of medieval Europe was also influenced by external factors, e.g. the topography of the continent, the influence of incoming cultures, the import of distant technologies, ancient and Muslim heritage. In the overall innovation pool, the Church dominated the technologies related to the operation of the science infrastructure and the construction of a pro-innovative climate.
Medieval merchant ships (book, 2017)
A study in the history of technology and economic history
2017, file size 17 MB, 228 pages
[in Polish] Book on the evolution of the European merchant ships constructions from the 1st to the 16th century. A study in the history of technology with elements of economic history. Maritime transport is considered one of the most important tools creating the power of Europe. It integrated remote areas, commercial shipping recorded the largest increase in productivity among all economic fields. It was an important inspirer and creator of technical progress. Ships from Europe were the vehicles disseminating, throughout the world, European cultural patterns, methods of life organization, tools, weapons, plants, religions, political ideas, people and diseases. Bibliography available on request.
What speeds up and what hinders technical progress. On historical determinants of innovation (2019)
[in Polish] Extensive commentary to Joel Mokyr’s book “The Lever of Riches: Technological Creativity and Economic Progress” (Oxford University Press, 1990). Analysis of historical factors that are recognized in the literature as important in stimulating or inhibiting technical progress. Oxford University Press, 1990. file size 465 KB, 40 pages.
2019, file size 465 kB, 40 pages
Medieval agricultural revolution – quantitative analysis (2020)
[in Polish] Text on the origin of resources that enabled Europe to chase great powers of the time (China, India, Islam states). Calculations are presented showing the origins and scale of the resources acquired thanks to the agriculture growth in IX-XIV centuries
2015 (first version), update 2020, file size 410 KB, 17 pages
Medieval watermills and windmills or medieval power industry (2015)
[in Polish] When we talk about medieval watermills and windmills, we are talking about creating in Europe, the first on such a scale in the world, power industry infrastructure for the needs of the emerging industry. Energy supplied by mills and windmills helped to launch such industries like i.e. textile, clothing, wood, mining, metal, construction, agri-food, paper and tanning industries.
2015, file size 1,6 MB, 11 pages.
Western Civilization and Time – synopsis of the book (2018)
2007, 2018, file size 250 KB, 9 pages
[in English] Western civilization challenges death. It does so with no fanfare, but patiently, persistently, step by step. That phenomenon has been the result of the process of transformation of time into one of our critical values, lasting several hundred years. Time as a value can be seen in the cult of speed, in the cult of youth and the demand to live longer and longer. There are no other priorities that increase their share in GDP just as quickly. In the world, so preoccupied with mundane matters, priorities to act ever faster and to live ever longer, transcend over our everyday secular horizon as they haven’t got any boundary. Unless in eternity.
Church and Christianity in the making of the European identity (2013)
2010, 2013, file size 320 KB, 20 pages
[in Polish] Working paper on the medieval europeization of Europe. Any debate about the role of Christianity and Church in coming of Europe to world dominance must be preceded with the reflection on how Europe as the separate and integrated civilizational unit came into being. And what role the Church played in that process. So, there is here a brief discussing of literature of the subject (ranking of 27 authors according to their assessment of the importance of Christianity and the Church) and then there is a description of two stages of integration: V-VIII centuries – religious homogenization, VIII-XIII centuries – cultural homogenization as well as the process of separating the sacred and secular spheres (Gregorian Revolution (XI – XII centuries).
Medieval Roots of Early Modern Science: the Influence of Cultural and Social Milieu On the Emergence of Science. Role of the Church (2013)
2010, 2013, file size 420 KB, 42 pages
[in Polish] Discussion of Edward Grant’s theory on medieval roots of science and description of external factors, affecting science’s setting, forming its organizational, economic, social and political milieu. Historical, geopolitical, social, organizational, economic and other factors are discussed. Discussion of each factor is combined with showing the role of Church
Rise of the West according to Douglass North (2013)
2013, file size 240KB, 12 pages
Artykuł pokazuje teoretyczne fundamenty nowej ekonomii instytucjonalnej i sposoby ich aplikacji do analizy historii gospodarczej Zachodu. W pewnym sensie jest uzupełnieniem tekstu Northa „Paradoks Zachodu″, gdyż odsłania założenia teoretyczne tego podejścia.
Historiography of science and religion (2011, 2020)
2010, update 2020, file size 490 KB, 32 pages
[in Polish] The article shows the evolution of historians’ and sociologists’ views in 1874-2010 period what is the right way of describing the historical relationships between science and religion. The key theories have been discussed which are the milestones in this evolution: from nineteenth century Draper’s and White’s works which formed the so called conflict thesis to the present complexity thesis, which recognizes the religion as significant co-originator of modern science.
Published in Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce, No 49 / 2011 (link) and in Historia Filozofii (History of Philosophy), eds. St. Janeczek, A. Starościc, Wydawnictwo KUL, Lublin 2020 (info on book and its contents).
Death taboo: why it appeared, why is vanishing (2006)
Text presented at the conference “Philosophy and Death” (Faculty of Theology, University of Silesia, March 2007). Short version published in: “Filozofia a śmierć”, Katowice 2007
2006, file size 720 KB. 24 pages
[in Polish] Development, culmination and gradual declining of the death taboo are linked to the unique demographic situation of the West in XX century and its psychological effects At the root of the taboo of death lies a specific phenomenon that occurred in the first half of the 20th century. There was a great rise in life expectation of younger generations (+45%) and at the same time no improvement (only 3%) in this respect towards the elderly (2/3 of the population) and the “scientific” pessimism as to their future life extension, because scientists’ general opinion was that life expectancy of elders was close to the limit imposed by the biology. The elders saw that the young stopped dying but they had no chance for a longer life. The reaction to this highly frustrating message was the suppression of the topic of dying from the collective consciousness. Death became taboo. Simultaneously the massive investments in health care sector started. The postponed effects of these expenditures brought such gains in the elderly life expectancy that death taboo as a defending measure against frustration started to weaken. See English abstract at the end of article.
Russia – our world’s misfortune (2014)
2014, file size 1,4 MB, 16 pages of text and 24 pages: statistics, maps, charts
[in Polish] Russia is mighty and puny. Military sector is strong but stands on weak economic foundations. The economy is natural resources monoculture. Political culture as if moved from the Middle Ages. Leaders are like a band of psychopathic robbers but have nuclear button. They invade the neighbouring countries enjoying enthusiastic support of their serfs-citizens and even political opposition. Such a country („mafia-run gas station masquerading as a country” in McCain’s words) is a misfortune of the world. But we have to deal with it somehow. At the same time it must not be thought it is the normal country. Russian leaders feel the resentment and the sense of inferiority toward the West. Like majority of the society. That results in envy, hostility, aggression and the lust for reprisal.
Historical European phenomenon or how Europe surpassed Asian powers (2009)
Shorten version published in the book “Language, mind and technology. Essays inspired by the prose of Stanisław Lem” (Język, umysł i technologia. Eseje zainspirowane prozą Stanisława Lema”) , Lodz Philosophical Library. The book contains materials from a conference organized by the Institute of Philosophy of the University of Lodz in 2009.
2009, file size 530 KB, 27 pages
[in Polish] The European Phenomenon is a widely used term for the exceptional dynamics of European civilization in the second millennium against the other great civilizations. The article presents the quantitative approach to that phenomenon, problems discussed in World History literature concerning the European phenomenon and controversies over various theoretical propositions, including historical roots of the European high rate of innovation.
The article includes the presentation of the historical economic growth and population data to show the scale of the phenomenon. Next some major areas of theoretical discussion are presented. Any such selection is subjective but looking at the modern West we must agree that the great impact on its birth had the modern science, technology and capitalist economic system. The fourth element, the Christianity, was the all-embracing cultural environment in which the previously mentioned processes took place. And these four elements are presented at more length. See English abstract at the end of article; file size 530 KB, 27 pages, in Polish. English abstract at the end of the paper.
The Emergence of a Western Guilt Culture, 13th–18th Centuries. Reflections on the book by Jean Delumeau (2008)
2008, file size 130 KB, 7 pages
[in Polish] Christianity of XIII – XVIII centuries were intensely instilling the sense of guilt and sin in their believers. But was it effective? Did it manage to frighten all or only the elites? The classic work of Jean Delumeau is a part of a wider discussion on the roots of our civilization and has been hotly debating since its publication. I present here a kind of sum up of that debate and some of my own reflections.
Douglass C. North, Paradox of the West – Polish translantion (2013)
2013 (translation), file size 300 KB, 24 pages
[English original and Polish translation]. A central thesis of this chapter is that economic growth and the development of freedom are complementary processes of societal development. Economic growth provides the resources to support more complex societies; and it is unlikely to persist in the long run without the development of political and civil liberties. A world of specialization and division of labor–the roots of economic growth–is going to nurture democratic and individual freedoms
Modern West and mythical time experience (2012)
2006, update 2012, file size 170 KB, 6 pages
[in Polish] One of the most important modern myths is the specific time perception. Modern man is convinced that – as long as he can remember – he has always wanted a longer life. This desire is now at the top of our priorities and consumes a tremendous amount of resources. But until recently, it was very far in our desires hierarchy. So, during last few decades that desire has been transformed into a myth. As a myth it is perceived as eternal, self-evident and almost indisputable under the penalty of intellectual banishment. As a myth, it has a powerful influence, legitimizes desire itself, thereby justifying the allocation of resources to activities to prolong our lives.
Can theory of civilization be a science in Lakatos sense? (2007)
The Applicability of Imre Lakatos’ methodology in humanities. Lecture given to Polish Philosophical Society, Szczecin, December 2007
2007, update 2010, file size 280 KB, 10 pages
[in Polish] The humanities (at least some of them) can meet the criteria of scientific knowledge, formulated by Imre Lakatos in his methodology of scientific research programmes, one of the most distinguished theories of science. The paper presents the example of such an application. The author analyzes his own book on dynamics of Western civilization from the perspective of Lakatos’ methodology revealing the hard core of his theory, protective belt of auxiliary hypotheses, negative and positive heuristics, problem shifts, etc. to prove the progressive nature of his own research programme. See English abstract at the end of article.
Islam and Russia: lost civilizations? (2006)
2006, file size 175 KB, 12 pages
[in Polish]. Not the very modernization but the unique synchronization of two historic processes: of modernization and secularization brought about the unprecedented level of the economic, scientific and technological development of Europe since XIII century. Other civilizations based on theocentric religions, Islam and Russia, also experienced both of these processes. In their cases however, the feedbacks between secularization and modernization had been proceeding very differently. The result is much lower level of modernization as well as cultures that hinders to catch up with the West.
History of technology: first readings recommended (2014)
2014, file size 126 KB, 6 pages
[in Polish] What texts are worth reading to get some initial orientation on the subject of determinants of technological development. I recommend twelve books. Most of these are readings recommended in university technology history programs. Among the authors’ surnames there are, among others Frances and Joseph Gies, James MacLachan, Ian McNeil, Lewis Mumford, Bryan Bunch and Alexander Hellemans, Daniel Headrick, James McClellan, and Harold Dorn.
Christianity and modernization of the West (2008)
2007, update 2008, file size 330 KB, 6 pages
[in Polish] Christianity could be perceived as the modernization-oriented axiology which inculturation took place in the medieval Europe which turned out to be hospitable ecological and cultural milieu.
Philosophy and Theology
Prayer in the Bergamuts Islands (2015)
2015, file size 90 kB, 3 pages
- pdf version (enter the password to see the text; clue: C46s32)
The Bergamuty Islands were dreamed up by the Polish poet Jan Brzechwa in a poem for children. Some years ago, my granddaughter and I were walking to get bread and the little one sang this poem over and over again. And me with her. Suddenly the poem turned into a prayer. Hence the title: Prayer in the Bergamuts Islands
“Do Not Bring Us Into Temptation” Or “Dissuade Us From Temptation”. 2000 Years of Controversies Over This Phrase in Lord’s Prayer (2017)
2005, updates: 2015, 2016, 2017, file size 390 KB. 21 pages
text published in Polish Catholic website Opoka (Rock of Faith) link
[in Polish] Pope Francis’ decision to change the words of the sixth petition of Lord’s Prayer goes in exactly the same direction that was implemented in 1965 in the Polish translation, called Biblia Tysiąclecia (Bible of the Millennium), and a few years later in the work of french Jesuit, Jean Carmignac. In 2013, the French church introduced such a change to the sixth petition.
In my text I describe the history of theological disputes since the 4th century and lively discussions on the proper translation of the sixth petition in the 20th century.
Life after death. Christian Perspective (2019)
2019, file size 360 KB. 20 pages
[in Polish]. 60% to 97% of Europeans believe to be Christians. Nearly 70% believe in some form of afterlife. How can we describe Christian world-after-life where people go after death? And to be in accord with the doctrine, mystics and NDEs visions?
The text is an attempt to show the Christian vision of what awaits us after death. The presented picture is closely related to the fundamental truth of faith about God’s infinite love. Considerations on this subject have usually got the problem how to harmoniously link God’s infinite love and mercy with the suffering of souls damned in hell. How to reconcile it?
Why I Like to Attend a Mass for Preschoolers? (2016)
2006 (update 2016), file size 110 kB. 1 page
[in Polish]. Because the preschoolers are the people interested in the world, not using any mental cliches and seriously searching for the answers. They are also the people who are not afraid to be wrong.
Necessity of evil. Proof by contradiction. (Supplement to Alvin Plantinga, 2009)
2009, update 2015, file size 110 KB. 3 pages. The paper published in Polish
[in English] Christian tradition sees the evil as the unavoidable by-product of our free will. The problem is that this thesis could be simply rejected as it can be argued that there is no logical contradiction in the existence of beings who would act freely but always go right. To prove that such a contradiction really exists, you need to carry out the proof by contradiction. The Polish version has been published in the international Festschrift collection to honor my friend, eminent philosopher, Ryszard Kleszcz 70th birthday
God’s Love. Information for atheists, agnostics and lukewarm believers (2017)
2013, update 2017, 2020, file size 187 KB, 6 pages
[in Polish] The article is an attempt at an emotionless definition of the concept of God’s love. The definition is to be consistent with Catholic doctrine and at the same time refer to elements neutral in terms of worldview. That everyone, even non-believers, know what a believer means when he says: God loves us, God is love. The chosen way of describing the concept of “God’s love” is by analogy. An analogy is a mother’s love, defined as a list of what I lost with her death.
Theology of Divine Providence (2019)
2019, file size 300 KB, 7 pages, text published in Tygiel Kultury (Culture Melting Pot, monthly), No, 10-12, 2009 and in Catholic website Katolik Katolik.pl
[in Polish] Why the Providence, who actively influences the world, with love, tolerates the evil? The classical version of theodicy is the answer to the question of why almighty and good God permits evil. It is theological attempt at vindicating God, because evil seems inconsistent with the existence of an omnipotent and omnibenevolent deity. My proposal includes one more element to be considered – Divine Providence. Governed by the Love, It actively interferes in the world and human affairs. But from the individual’s perspective Providence’s activity is often obviously improper. How to reconcile justice and holiness of God, not only with evil but also with these “arbitrary” interventions? English abstract at the end of the paper.
What is Evil? Why Do We do It? (2015)
2015, file size 240 KB, 4 pages
[in Polish] When discussing evil, my listeners invariably ask me a basic question: what is it and why does it exist. This text is meant to help in our conversations. It is not an encyclopaedic survey. It is my personal answer to the question. I want it to be helpful not only in conversations, but perhaps also in understanding the world around us.
The psychologically comprehensible model of the Universe and its consequences (2017)
2017, file size 210 KB, 7 pages
At the end of the text, there is a link to the animated interactive model
[in Polish] The size and duration of the universe is billions of years and trillions of kilometers. To understand these numbers, we need a model of the universe on a scale that is psychologically comprehensible, so that we can relate its size and time to something known. And that we can understand the proportions between the dimensions of the Universe and our Earth, and between the duration of the Universe and the duration of our species and our civilization. Such a model helps – by analogy – to understand the cultural shock caused by the Scientific Revolution (15th-17th centuries) and is a challenge for Christian theology.
Meaning of Life: Balance Between Values Or the Goal of Existence? (2008)
2009, file size 370 KB, 9 pages
Shorten version published in Tygiel Kultury monthly (Culture melting Pot), No. 10-12. 2009
[in Polish]. Most of us do not think about the meaning of life. That is a symptom of health, because the meaning of life is the balance between many values that we pursue every day. And only when some crucial value disappears from our lives or we lose it, we start to think about the whole problem. However, the centuries-old tradition understands the meaning of life quite differently – as the fundamental issue of the purpose of human existence. Both approaches can collide with each other as the first (balance between values) is morally neutral and the second is the typical norm maker. And people except emergency are not interested in the matter at all. Are most of us silly?
What Is Postmodernism (2011)
Author: Elisabeth Anderson. Translation: Jacek Kwaśniewski
2011, file size 180 KB, 4 pages
Translation of the excerpts from the chapter “Feminist Postmodernism” in: Elisabeth Anderson, Feminist Epistemology and Philosophy of Science, in: Stanford Encyclipedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/feminism-epistemology file size 180 KB, 4 pages
[in Polish] My translation of Milton and Rose Friedman famous “Free to Choose”. I translated the book in 80s. It was first published by Polish underground publishers. At that time there was a martial law in Poland introduced by communist rule. Since then it has been published in seven editions. The latest appeared in 2020.
Harmonious Society Versus Conflict-Ridden Society: Marxism and Liberalism (1988)
[in English] Co-author Jerzy Drygalski. Chapter from the book “A Critique of Marxist and Non-Marxist Thought” , Praeger Special Studies, 1988. The authors’ intention was to compare two doctrines: liberalism and marxism and to look at their practical realizations in real world as well as to reveal deep ties linking these ideas and their relevant political systems.
file size 2,3 MB, 23 pages
the text contains the main ideas from the book “(Non) real Socialism”
How to Build Successful Capitalism in Third World Countries (2003)
2003, file size 170 kB, 6 pages
[in English]. My description of Hernando de Soto’s concept for the Iraqi government (2003). According to de Soto, there is great property /assets/ (real estate, machinery, businesses) in Third World countries, in the hands of the poor, formally outside the legal system. These assets work but cannot provide a mortgage to borrow for further development, cannot be officially connected to the media, is vulnerable to confiscation and reliance on organized crime. These and other risks lead to a reduction in the size of this type of business, which drastically slows down its development and growth. This is so called dead capital. Transferring it to the legal world is a recipe for the dynamic development of the powerful resources of the Third World. The Peruvian economist Hernando de Soto writes about how to do this. His Institute for Freedom of Democracy has been helping to implement appropriate reforms in Third World countries for almost 30 years. While working in the Coalition Provisional Authority in Iraq (2003-2004), I wanted to bring him in to help rebuild the Iraqi economy. He was willing but US Undersecretary of Defense Paul D. Wolfowitz opposed the idea.
No-Choice Elections (1990)
Jacek Kwaśniewski, Jerzy Drygalski
[in English] The detailed analysis of the electoral system in communist Poland in 1950-1979 period. The English version of the chapter from my and Jerzy Drygalski’s book “(Un)Real Socialism”. The phrase no-choice elections was coined by me and repeated many times in the literature.
The article from Studies, April 1990, file size 2,5 MB, 21 pages
Early days of Polish privatization 1989-1991 Krzysztof Lis vs Balcerowicz (2014)
2014, file size 260 KB, 10 pages
[in Polish] My personal reminiscences. I was witness and participant of Polish privatization process, working on governmental posts. The main creator of Polish privatization process as well as building Polish capital market was Krzysztof Lis. He was nominated by Tadeusz Mazowiecki (Polish first post-communist Prime Minister) as the Government’s Plenipontientiary for Privatization. His responsibility encompassed the preparation of privatization and capital market law as well as carrying out first public offerings. Lis was classical professional who, from the very beginning, opposed Leszek Balcerowicz’s (deputy Prime Minister responsible for market re-orientation of Polish economy) pure political approach to privatization. Seemingly Lis lost the battle as Balcerowicz blocked his nomination for ministerial position. But Balcerowicz idea to make privatization very fast (through free voucher distribution) resulted in failure whereas Lis privatization methodology was applied succesfully for several years.
Solidarity and the Communist Party. Dynamics of Polish Conflict 1980 – 1981 (2012)
Jacek Kwaśniewski, Jerzy Drygalski
Seminar paper for Collegium Civitas
2012, file size 335 kB, 17 pages
[in Polish] In the late eighties me and my friend Jerzy Drygalski began to write a book on dynamics of social and political conflict in 1980-1981 in Poland. Big wave of strikes in July-August 1980 resulted in the consent of communist rulers for establishing the independent trade unions under Walesa leadership. A year later communist rulers crushed Solidarity by introducing the martial law.
The main idea of the book was taken from our theory of suppression of free articulation as the fundamental precondition of surviving the communist rule (abstract of the theory see “Harmonious Society vs Conflict-Ridden Society” on this site). Eventually the book was not completed because the communist rule collapsed in 1989 and we both immediately jumped into the process of making new Polish reality. I began to create with my friends the ministry of privatization, later prepare the privatization program for Poland state owned economy and finally work in the high ministerial positions. Jurek Drygalski was appointed to liquidate RUCH – the communist party organization supervising Polish press. He was well prepared for this job as the part of our joint PhD thesis was devoted to the analysis of suppression of free articulation in the press in communist Poland. Thirty years later we have been asked to deliver the lecture on our unfinished book. And this is what you can read here. Seminar paper for Collegium Civitas
[in English and in Polish] Science and speculative publishing business. On the one hand, scientists and educators, on the other – large scientific publishers that maximize profit by minimizing inputs, maximizing prices and targeting a group of wealthy institutional buyers.
[in Polish] A little poem on autumn written for Maia (my grandaughter) and placed here on her request. Maia is its owner and can freely change the content. Every her recitation is correct.