“(Un)Real Socialism”

“The (Un)real Socialism” is one of the few global theories accounting for the communism phenomenon, from its ideological, Marxian roots to the main principles governing the political process in the Soviet-type countries. The work hotly debated in Poland and in Western sovietology. More about the theory you can read in English in “Harmonious Society Versus Conflict-Ridden Society” in Other Texts on this website. See also my and Jurek Drygalski’s article “No Choice Elections” (also Other Texts) on the evolution of the electoral system in communist countries (Polish example).

In 1986 the book was published by Polish underground company. After Poland overthrown the communist rule it was published again in the Polish Scientific Publishing Company. The excerpts were published in France, in the US, and Canada.

All your remarks and comments are welcome.

My e-mail address: adres-mail-gmail-9520

Abstract: Marx believed, that having overthrown capitalism the world would return to its natural state of harmony. That was his understanding of Hegelian idea of alienation. The vision of the end of social conflicts resulting from liquidation of social classes dominated the thinking of next generations of the Left. Bolsheviks, building new state, after 1917, were both pragmatic and dogmatic. Believing to be the holders of true about unavoidable unity, they tried to eradicate any symptom of its lack, because they were confirmed in their belief that such symptoms were proofs of activities of the enemies of the Revolution. They were building the system simultaneously utopian as adapted to mythical harmony and practical, as supporting the utopia of unity with suppressing the free articulation and the extermination of its representatives. The institutional structure of new state assumed the unity of social interests which made conflict settlement institutions unnecessary. But the social unity had never existed. Therefore the precondition of its survival was the sustained blockage of free articulation, which had been the direct and deadly threat for communism as revealing the false of its basic ideological premise and made this structure unadjusted to the real world full of conflicts. Any time the free articulation suppression weakened, the system began to totter. More than half of the book is devoted to present the detailed analysis of gagging the free articulation in local authorities, in the press and in the communist party itself.

(Un) Real Socialism  full text   (in Polish)

(Un) Real Socialism  part II   (in Polish, chapters IV – VII on Poland)

Contents (translated from Polish, links here are to Polish original text)

Chapter I ­Marx and the Idea of Communism: Harmonious Community of Producers
  1. The Roots of Marxian Concept of Communism – Synthesis of Hegelian and the Utopian Socialists’ Threads
  2. Assumptions of Marxian Vision of Communism
  3. The Communist Society, Economy and Control
  4. The Orthodox Interpretation of the Vision of Communism (Second International)
Chapter II Lenin’s Version of Communism
  1. Russian Roots of Leninism
  2. Lenin and Marx on Communism: the Comparison
  3. The Core of Lenin’s Vision: the Superior Position of the Communist Party
  4. Principles of Communist Party Organization
  5. Lenin’s Idea of Communist Party As a Transmitter of Proletariat Interest to Delegates Councils and Other Workers’ Organizations
  6. Superior Position of the Communist Party and Russian tradition of nihilism and maximalism
  7. “Russia the Weakest Link in Capitalist Chain”
  8. Conclusions
  9. Annex: Lenin’s Program of Gradual Steps to Socialism
Chapter III The Ideological Roots of Soviet State
  1. Soviet State Evolution: Stages
  2. First Stage: State of Paris Commune Type
  3. Second Stage: Towards Monoparty Political System
  4. Leap to the Future: the War Communism Economy
  5. Third Stage: Setting-Up the Monolithic Party
  6. Thirties: Revolution from Above
  7. Stalinist Version of Marxism
Chapter IV The Principles of the Communist System: Unity of Interests and the Suppression of Free Articulation
  1. Communist State Building Principle: Society As Homogeneous Community
  2. Democratic Institutions and the Unity of Interests: Non-compatibility
  3. Liberal Democracy: Immersed in Conflicts
  4. Socialist Democracy: Full Harmony, No Conflicts
  5. Superior Position of Communist Party
  6. Suppression of Free Articulation As a Precondition of Communist System Survival
  7. Unity of Interests Principle and the Theory of Totalitarian State
  8. Annex: Why Democratic Institutions Survived?
Chapter V Local Authorities: Quasi Representation, No Power
  1. Formal Powers and the Suppression of Free Articulation
  2. Suppression of Free Articulation Through the Channel of Central Control (Content Imposing)
  3. Suppression of Free Articulation Through the Channel of Local Control (Staff Selection)
Chapter VI Loudly Silent Mass Media: the Press in Communist Poland
  1. Introductory Remark
  2. History of Setting-Up Communist Party Publishing Monopoly
  3. Communist Party Control Over the Press Editorial Teams
  4. Mechanism of Party Direct Imposing of Press Content
  5. Censorship
  6. Fabrication of Reality: Pinciples and Technics How to Make the Proper Image of Everything
  7. Concluding Remarks
Chapter VII The Communist Party: Puppets and Helmsmen
  1. Statute of Polish Communist Party: the Evolution, Principles, and Paradoxes
  2. Communist Party To the Outer World: Principle of One Face and One Voice
  3. Suppression of Free Articulation Within the Party: the Evolution and Technics
  4. Vested Interests of the Inner Party Members